How to Succeed at DevOps: Wrong Answers Only!

When it comes to DevOps, everyone thinks they've got the answer. These are the bad answers I've encountered. Let's explore why they just don't work.

Seth Eliot
Seth Eliot
Amazon Employee
Published Mar 24, 2023

Software teams have been struggling for ages with the questions I pose here, and in that time we have all witnessed our share of bad answers from unrealistic management - or even misguided senior engineers. Let’s see why they just don’t work, and figure out the better answers together.

Our development team owns the design and implementation of an application, while our operations team is separate, and owns deployment to production and running it there. Handoff from development to operations is often insufficient to inform the operations team of everything they need to know. When operations integrates the systems into production, there are often unanticipated problems.

It's like there is a wall between development and operations. Deploying code is a bit like shooting an arrow over that wall at a target our developers cannot see and hoping the operations team can just take care of it (Figure 1).

How do we break down walls between development and operations?

On the left there is a developer who is overdressed for launch day. In the middle there is a tall wall they cannot see over. Hidden behind the wall is a target
Figure 1. Development team on the left (overdressed for launch day), production on the right, operations team hiding somewhere on the right... possibly behind target

We’ve decided to rename the "operations" team to be a "DevOps" team and make all the members of that team DevOps engineers. They do the same job as before, but now they do it as DevOps!

In DevOps all team members, regardless of role, have a shared goal of delivering value to the customer. When "the wall" is there, they can have opposing goals, with developers pushed to quickly build new features and operators evaluated based on system stability.

So yes, folks taking on DevOps engineering roles is a good thing. But these DevOps engineers aren't your grandparents' operations team. They don't take a hand-off from developers and run the application in production for them. Instead, they work with developers to create and design systems and processes that enable those developers to own their application from implementation all the way to running in production. A DevOps engineer may help implement CI/CD pipelines, create infrastructure as code templates for developers to use to stand up cloud resources, or implement observability and monitoring systems so developers have awareness of what their applications (and the users of those applications) are doing in production.

It takes too long to deliver products and features for those products. The time from when we learn a feature is needed by users to when that feature is delivered is way too long.

How can we deliver customer value faster?

Just go faster. Don’t you know what “faster” means?

Work harder and get that code delivered!

Skip the code review. Code reviews - and finding someone on the team willing to do them - take way too long. Why review code that is already written, anyway, when you can be coding and releasing new features?

And while we’re at it, the developers need to take it easy on testing. They should be handing it off to the test team. Customers don't care about your unit test coverage; they care about features. Let the test team do their job, and you do yours: write code.

A manager is frowning while pointing to the watch on their wrist
Figure 2. I asked for that new feature this morning. Can’t you just use Kubernetes or something?

Jeff Bezos famously said you cannot just ask folks to try better (or in this case just go faster). Good intentions do not work because people already have good intentions. Instead we can look at building mechanisms by using processes and tools to release sooner.

Code review and testing are both important mechanisms to identify problems early, and to fix them. The earlier we find and fix problems, the less expensive they are (both in monetary cost and cost to customer trust). While code review can be time consuming, you can use automation to help lighten the load. Tools like Amazon CodeGuru Reviewer use machine learning and automated reasoning to identify critical issues, security vulnerabilities, and hard-to-find bugs during application development - and they provide recommendations to improve code quality. You can get hands-on with the CodeGuru in the Amazon Code Guru Workshop. But machines are not quite ready to replace us yet: you need a human reviewer, too. One process to encourage folks to do code reviews instead of coding new features is using WIP (Work in Process) limits. This concept, taken from Kanban, limits how much new work can be started until existing work is done, where “done” includes the code review stage. This is shown in figure 3, where each yellow note represents a coding task. Developers cannot take new work (which will cause the “Develop” WIP limit of 4 to be exceeded) until some code reviews are completed.

Two whiteboards, each with multiple columns and sticky notes illustrate the concept of limiting WIP
Figure 3. Limiting WIP can streamline throughput, and incentivizes code reviews.

And continuing to explore how to find problems early, a good test suite will be your best friend. Automate it as part of your CI/CD pipeline, and ensure it is high quality (not brittle or noisy). Treat test code as you treat production code (yes, including code reviews). Include load testing and chaos engineering to test non-functional requirements like scalability and resilience.

First we get requirements from customers and stakeholders, then we create a design that delivers those, and finally we implement that design. But at the end we find it does not work like we thought it would. And the customers and stakeholders change what they want along the way, which is not what they asked for in the first place. In the end, the customer is unhappy and we are stressed.

How can we respond to changing requirements and still deliver value on a predictable schedule?

Hold the line. Get all the requirements in writing at the start, and don’t budge an inch. If you give them an inch, next they’ll want a kilometer! At the end, release it all at once - that is the time to learn if all your integrations work. If the customer does not like what you released, then it's time to create the next version. Job security guaranteed!


The customer is always right! Give them everything they want when they ask for it. If it is top of mind to them, then it is number one priority for you. You won’t deliver anything valuable remotely close to your timetable, but that’s what follow-on contracts are for. Job security guaranteed!

The tenets of agile software are actually quite simple, although implementation takes effort and practice. They value collaborating with customers by producing working software they can see and use, and then iterating on that.

With DevOps, teams break their work down into smaller chunks and approach product delivery collaboratively, with a holistic view of the product, enabling better team transparency and quicker, more reliable deployments. By doing this you learn as you develop what works and what does not, testing each release. Using continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD), you integrate with other systems as new functionality is added, instead of as a big bang at the end of a long release. You also create working software that you can share (demo or beta) with customers and stakeholders to get feedback. As customers and stakeholders give feedback and request changes to requirements, you add these to a backlog along with all the other remaining tasks to be done. By prioritizing these new asks along with the old, you can see clearly what is left to be developed, and the timeline be which requirements will and won’t be done. A prioritized backlog makes highly visible what will be delivered, and the trade-offs you make when new requirements are moved to the top of the stack. At all points, the engineering team is learning, and there will be no surprises as delivery dates approach. And yes, I said “dates” plural, because the team will continue to use feedback from real customers in production to iteratively improve the application.

When launching an application, there is a lot of work required that is not actual development. Our developers do not want to deal with this overhead; they just want to design and code.

How can our development teams reduce overhead and focus on value-adding activities?

This one’s easy. The development team does not want to do it — and that’s why we have a DevOps team! No task is too big or too small. The DevOps team will run their scripts and their infrastructure as code templates and get it done. Need a Kubernetes cluster? File a ticket to DevOps. Need to change the policy on an IAM role? Drop a message on the DevOps Slack channel.

A determined looking DevOps engineer is sitting in a cardboard box as if it's a boat, with a paddle out the side. Instead of water, they are surrounded by pages and tickets of work to do
Figure 4. A DevOps engineer works through his ticket backlog (again overdressed — shirt and tie not necessary)

Folks don’t like waiting on a ticket to be serviced. And folks like it even less when they have an insurmountable stream of “muck” work thrown at them. DevOps is about collaboration, not throwing it over the wall (see Figure 1).

A DevOps team can play a key role in creating and maintaining scripts. They can create infrastructure as code templates that are vetted to be compliant with business security and architectural policies. They can create systems that make it easy to find and deploy these templates to stand up cloud infrastructure (like the aforementioned Kubernetes cluster). They do this working with Developers and others as stakeholders. Then the developers use these scripts and infrastructure deployment processes to self-service, and stand up what they need. For their part, the DevOps team focuses on removing or automating repetitive or low-value tasks. They then have more time to spend focusing on innovating and enhancing technology quality, without having to take on menial tasks

The line for what is self-service (using DevOps-created tools) and what is done by DevOps depends on the organization. Above I describe an organization where development is almost completely self-service, but with guardrails to help developers maintain compliance with policies. In other cases DevOps may stamp out landing zones in AWS accounts, to which Developers can then deploy infrastructure (using the template library). In some organizations, they prefer security (such as IAM roles) to be a centralized function. What makes it DevOps is a culture of collaboration and ownership.

Production is a turbulent place, and we’ve just deployed our application there. Our customers expect it to be reliable, performant, and secure.

When our application is running in production, how do we know it is working as it should?

First of all, the development team lead verified it worked on her machine. Now it's in production, and we have other teams for that! The DevOps team deploys it and runs it. Customer service takes the calls from frustrated users and files the bugs. And the support engineers investigate the bugs and fix some of them, and file tickets to the development team for the others. The bugs get fixed, and everyone is happy.

Remember that the earlier we find and fix problems, the better. Bugs happen: that is a reality of software engineering. But letting customers find our bugs is a miss and in some cases can carry severe consequences.

Monitoring with alarming will enable you to understand what is happening in production, and to find and fix issues before they impact users. This, combined with logging and tracing, is called observability, and it will enable you to understand how and why things happened and design long term fixes. Automation and machine learning can help with this. Services like Amazon DevOps Guru can be used to take in all this data and detect abnormal operating patterns so you can identify operational issues before they impact your customers.

Monitoring should occur at several levels. At the lower levels, metrics like CPU utilization and disk I/O will enable you to spot problems with design or the runtime environment that can impact the smooth operation of your application. At a service level, you should define one or more Service Level Indicators (SLI) like latency or error rate that give you a view as to the health of an individual service. And at the application level (where your customers interact), you should define a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) that provides a measure for what your customers are experiencing. For example an online retailer might use order rate, where an anomalous drop indicates customers are not able to use the site to place orders.

A DevOps team organizes their tools and processes around such measures to find and fix problems early.

Requests and latency on a service API
Figure 5. Requests and latency on a service API. Latency is a good SLI, and is measured at various percentiles.

Order rate for amazon.com
Figure 6. Order rate -- a good KPI for an online retailer. When orders drop below predicted values, it indicates a serious problem with customer experience on the site.

While we do not want to use our customers as front line “monitoring,” we still want to listen to their needs and add requirements to the backlog for future releases to meet those needs. Tracing and instrumentation can be used to gather objective data on how customers use your application. Also, user studies, beta releases, surveys, and social media sentiment analysis are ways to gather subjective data from your customers.

To help you learn DevOps I have posed questions and then offered answers so absurd that no one would ever actually do it that way, right? Except all of us have had managers give us similar answers — and if you haven't, just wait around the industry for a few more years. DevOps really can help, though, offering a culture of collaboration and continuous improvement to create quality software. And there are plenty of thoughtful, effective managers who do work with their teams to grow a DevOps culture!

If you want to learn more check out these resources:

Any opinions in this post are those of the individual author and may not reflect the opinions of AWS.