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Fighting Hallucinations with LLM Cascades πŸ„

Fighting Hallucinations with LLM Cascades πŸ„

Learn how to implement FrugalGPT-style LLM cascades on top of Amazon Bedrock using LangChain and LangGraph without breaking the bank.

JoΓ£o Galego
Amazon Employee
Published May 3, 2024
Last Modified May 4, 2024

The Sum of All Choices πŸ€”

"Everything you are comes from choices" ―Jeff Bezos
One of the best things about Amazon Bedrock is model choice. By using Amazon Bedrock, users can experiment and build applications on top of the best-performing foundation models (FMs) from leading AI companies like Anthropic, Mistral, Stability and others.
Source: Eduardo Ordax
As a Solutions Architect, one of the top questions I get from customers is: which model should I use?
One way to get out of the choice overload plateau is to use Model Evaluation jobs to test different models and then choose the best one for each specific use case.
πŸ’‘ If you're looking for guidance, AWS Community has some great posts on how to handle this decision. See, for example, How to choose your LLM by Elizabeth Fuentes and Choose the best foundational model for your AI applications by Suman Debnath.

Sometimes, however, the best model is not the only choice, nor necessarily the right one.
Simple queries can often be addressed by weaker and more affordable models without the need to call the cavalry. Weaker models may not work all the time, but they get the job done.
So how do we know which one is best? And what if we don't want to choose? What if we just want to rely on the wisdom of the crowd and use multiple models... without breaking the bank? πŸ’Έ
In this post, I'll take the contrarian view to the just-select-the-best-model approach and show you an interesting way to handle choice overload using LLM cascades.
Don't worry, I'll spend some time in the next section explaining what these are and why and when you should use them.
Finally, in the last section, I'll demonstrate all of it by implementing the LLM cascade pattern as a way to tackle one of the biggest issues around LLMs: hallucinations.
Ready, set... go!

Introduction to LLM Cascades

In the accelerated timescale of Generative AI innovations, LLM Cascades are old news.
First introduced in the FrugalGPT paper (Chen, Zaharia & Zou, 2023), the general idea is surprisingly easy to state: prompt LLMs in sequence (weaker models first), evaluate their responses and return the first answer that is good enough. Simple, right?
Source: Chen, Zaharia & Zou (2023)
Every LLM Cascade is made of two core components:
  • a scoring function which evaluates a generated answer to a question by producing a reliability score between 0 πŸ‘Ž and 1 πŸ‘ and
  • an LLM router that dynamically selects the optimal sequence of models to query
Given a new query, the LLM router will
  1. Invoke a model on the list to generate an answer
  2. Use the scoring function to evaluate how good it is
  3. Returns the answer if the score is higher than a given threshold (which can be different for each model)
  4. Otherwise, it moves to the next model on the list and goes back to step 1
This will continue until the LLM cascade generates an acceptable answer or reaches the final model.
The tricky part is the scoring function. We can create one by training a simple regression model to distinguish yay from nay answers. Ideally, this model should be much smaller, faster and cheaper to run than the weaker LLMs in the sequence to make up for the investment.
The original paper used a simple DistilBERT model as a scoring function, while the selection of the LLM sequence and threshold values is modeled as a constrained optimization problem bounded by the customer's available budget.
πŸ‘¨β€πŸ’» If you're interested in the original implementation, the code is available on GitHub.
As we can clearly see in the image below, FrugalGPT-style LLM cascades can reach the same level of performance as the best LLM in the chain at a fraction of the cost:
Source: Chen, Zaharia & Zou (2023)
The original implementation focused on balancing performance and cost, but there are obviously other factors to consider:
"(...) real-world applications call for the evaluation of other critical factors, including latency, fairness, privacy, and environmental impact. Incorporating these elements into optimization methodologies while maintaining performance and cost-effectiveness is an important avenue for future research."
Latency, in particular, can be a big concern if the "model hit ratio" for weaker models (similar to 'cache hit ratio' but for generated answers) is low and the scoring function execution time is high. Ideally, we want most answer to come from the weaker models in the chain.
Another limitation of FrugalGPT-like LLM cascades is related to their performance on intricate reasoning tasks (Yue et al., 2023). These tasks are hard for LLM cascades since
"Intuitively, it is very challenging to evaluate the difficulty and the answer correctness of a reasoning question solely based on its literal expression, even with a large enough LLM, since the errors could be nuanced despite the reasoning paths appearing promising."
Yue et al. (2023) proposed a new routing mechanism (pictured below) based on the observation that weaker models tend to be consistent when answering easy questions, but inconsistent when the question is hard.
Source: Yue et al. (2023)
These new LLM cascades use a Mixture-of-Thought (MoT) strategy that emulates expert opinion by sampling answers from both Chain-of-Thought (CoT) and Program-of-Thought (PoT) prompts. The generated answers then go through a consistency check phase to find the majority-voted answers (vote-based) and whether they are consistent (verify-based).
Note for the brave ones: 🧐 While MoT-based LLM cascades are well beyond the scope of this post, the curious reader is strongly encouraged to read the paper.

Implementing FrugalBedrock 🏞️

πŸ’š Frugality: Accomplish more with less. Constraints breed resourcefulness, self-sufficiency, and invention. There are no extra points for growing headcount, budget size, or fixed expense.
As far as leadership principles go, frugality is one of the toughest ones to master. Frugality is not about being β€œcheap", but about spending on things that matter most to customers and the long-term success of the company.
There's also another aspect to frugality involving ingenuity and creativity that is well represented by the LLM cascade pattern and its do-more-with-weaker-models approach.
As we saw in the previous section, FrugalGPT-style LLM cascades use a sequence of dynamically selected models (ordered from weaker to stronger) and trained scoring functions to reach good-enough answers while being cost efficient.
Now it's time to take a step back and explore what makes the LLM cascade pattern so effective and start questioning some of its underlying assumptions.
Take the scoring function. Its purpose is to evaluate whether an answer is "good enough". This notion is usually hard to pin down and we end up training a regression model for every mode+task combination we encounter.
But what if shake things up and start asking simpler, more generic questions like:
In the rest of this section, we'll put our minds to work on the first question and create an LLM cascade for a Q&A application that will accept an answer only if it's factually consistent i.e. only if the model producing it is not hallucinating.
Sounds interesting? Then let's get cracking...
πŸ‘¨β€πŸ’» All code and documentation for this post is available on GitHub.
Let's start by importing the libraries we'll need for the implementation
🚫 The BedrockChat class available on langchain_community is on the deprecation path and will be removed with version 0.3 >>> Please don't use it!
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r"""
______ _ ____ _ _
| ____| | | _ \ | | | |
| |__ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ _| | |_) | ___ __| |_ __ ___ ___| | __
| __| '__| | | |/ _` |/ _` | | _ < / _ \/ _` | '__/ _ \ / __| |/ /
| | | | | |_| | (_| | (_| | | |_) | __/ (_| | | | (_) | (__| <
|_| |_| \__,_|\__, |\__,_|_|____/ \___|\__,_|_| \___/ \___|_|\_\
__/ |
|___/

FrugalGPT-style LLM cascades for fighting hallucinations.

.-'''-.
/* * * *\
:_.-:`:-._;
(_)
\|/(_)\|/
"""


import os
import json

from operator import itemgetter
from typing import (
Any,
List,
Tuple,
TypedDict
)

# HuggingFace πŸ€—
from datasets import load_dataset
from transformers import pipeline

# LangChain Core πŸ¦œπŸ”—
from langchain_core.prompts import ChatPromptTemplate
from langchain_core.output_parsers import StrOutputParser
from langchain_core.runnables import (
RunnableLambda,
RunnableParallel,
RunnableBranch,
RunnablePassthrough
)

# LangChain AWS ☁️
from langchain_aws import ChatBedrock

# LangGraph πŸ¦œπŸ•ΈοΈ
from langgraph.graph import StateGraph, END
The first thing we need is a scoring function. I'll be using Vectara's Hallucination Evaluation model (HHEM) model, which is available on HuggingFace.
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# For more information, see
# https://vectara.com/blog/automating-hallucination-detection-introducing-vectara-factual-consistency-score/
hallucination_detector = pipeline(
task="text-classification",
model="vectara/hallucination_evaluation_model"
)

def scorer(inpt: dict) -> float:
"""
Returns a score between 0 and 1 indicating whether the model is hallucinating.
"""

result = hallucination_detector({'text': inpt['context'], 'text_pair': inpt['answer']})
return result['score'] # 0 -> hallucination, 1 -> factually consistent

def batch_scorer(inpts: List[dict]) -> List[float]:
"""
Scores multiple inputs in one go.
"""

inputs = list(map(lambda inpt: {'text': inpt['context'], 'text_pair': inpt['answer']}, inpts))
results = hallucination_detector(inputs)
return list(map(lambda result: result['score'], results))
This model produces a Factual Consistency Score (FCS) between 0 😡 and 1 🎩, where 0 means that the model is hallucinating and 1 indicates factual consistency.
☝️ For more information about the model and FCS, see the Automating Hallucination Detection: Introducing the Vectara Factual Consistency Score post by Vectara.
Next, we need to build the actual LLM cascade. Let's keep things simple and work only with static LLM cascades, which will be composed from individual model chains.
There are at least two ways to approach the LLM cascade implementation.
We can either use LangChain πŸ¦œπŸ”— to construct each model chain in the sequence (notice that the scoring is done inside each model chain)
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def build_chain(model_id: str, threshold: float, scoringf: callable = scorer):
"""
Creates a model chain for question answering.
"""

prompt = ChatPromptTemplate.from_template("{context}\n\n{question}")
llm = ChatBedrock(model_id=model_id, model_kwargs={'temperature': 0})
output_parser = StrOutputParser()
return RunnableParallel({
'context': itemgetter('context'),
'question': itemgetter('question'),
'model': lambda _: model_id,
'answer': prompt | llm | output_parser
}) | RunnableParallel({
'context': itemgetter('context'),
'question': itemgetter('question'),
'model': itemgetter('model'),
'answer': itemgetter('answer'),
'score': RunnableLambda(scoringf),
'threshold': lambda _: str(threshold)
})
then assemble the LLM cascade by joining all chains with conditional branches based on the answer score
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def llm_cascade(model_ids: List[str], thresholds: List[float]):
"""
Creates a static LLM cascade for question answering.
"""

if len(model_ids) != len(thresholds):
raise ValueError("The list of models and thresholds must have the same size.")

def check_score(output):
score = float(output['score'])
threshold = float(output['threshold'])
if score < threshold:
return True
return False

chains = [
build_chain(model_id, threshold)
for model_id, threshold in zip(model_ids, thresholds)
]

llmc = chains[0]
for chain in chains[1:]:
llmc = llmc | RunnableBranch(
(lambda output: check_score(output), chain),
RunnablePassthrough()
)

return llmc
or we can decouple the scoring from the model chain
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def build_chain_lg(model_id: str):
"""
Creates a model chain for question answering (LangGraph version).
"""

prompt = ChatPromptTemplate.from_template("{context}\n\n{question}")
llm = ChatBedrock(model_id=model_id, model_kwargs={'temperature': 0})
output_parser = StrOutputParser()
return RunnableParallel({
'context': itemgetter('context'),
'question': itemgetter('question'),
'model': lambda _: model_id,
'answer': prompt | llm | output_parser
})
and use LangGraph πŸ¦œπŸ•ΈοΈ to manage the LLM cascade flow
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class ModelState(TypedDict):
"""
State class to pass the model output along the sequence.
"""

context: str
question: str
model: str
answer: str

def llm_cascade_lg(model_ids: List[str], thresholds: List[float], scoringf: callable = scorer):
"""
Creates a static LLM cascade for question answering (LangGraph version).
"""

if len(model_ids) != len(thresholds):
raise ValueError("The list of models and thresholds must have the same size.")

def check_score(state: ModelState):
if scoringf(state) < thresholds[model_ids.index(state['model'])]:
return "next_model"
return "end"

graph = StateGraph(ModelState)
for i, model_id in enumerate(model_ids):
graph.add_node(model_id, build_chain_lg(model_id))
if i < len(model_ids) - 1:
graph.add_conditional_edges(model_id, check_score, {
'next_model': model_ids[i+1],
'end': END
})
else:
graph.add_edge(model_ids[-1], END)
graph.set_entry_point(model_ids[0])
return graph.compile()
Both implementations should yield the same results, so feel free to pick the one you prefer.
Let's add some helper functions to track down costs
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if os.path.isfile("pricing.json"):
with open("pricing.json", encoding="utf-8") as f:
BEDROCK_PRICING = json.load(f)
else:
BEDROCK_PRICING = None

def compute_cost(response: dict, models: List) -> Tuple[float, float]:
"""
Returns the actual cost of running the chain and the
predicted cost if we were to use only the best model.
"""

end_model = response['model']
query = response['context'] + response['question']
answer = response['answer']

# Assumption: 1 token ~ 4 chars
in_tokens = len(query) // 4
out_tokens = len(answer) // 4

cost = 0
for model in models:
model_pricing = BEDROCK_PRICING[model]
cost += (in_tokens/1000)*model_pricing.get('input', 0.0) + \
(out_tokens/1000)*model_pricing.get('output', 0.0)
if model == end_model:
break

# Assumption: output tokens (LLM cascade) == # output tokens (best model)
best_model_pricing = BEDROCK_PRICING[models[-1]]
best_cost = (in_tokens/1000)*best_model_pricing.get('input', 0.0) + \
(out_tokens/1000)*best_model_pricing.get('output', 0.0)

return cost, best_cost
and create a Bedrock pricing file (pricing.json) for Anthropic and Mistral models
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{
"anthropic.claude-3-haiku-20240307-v1:0": {
"input": 0.00025,
"output": 0.00125
},
"anthropic.claude-3-sonnet-20240229-v1:0": {
"input": 0.003,
"output": 0.015
},
"anthropic.claude-3-opus-20240229-v1:0": {
"input": 0.015,
"output": 0.075
},
"anthropic.claude-instant-v1": {
"input": 0.0008,
"output": 0.0024
},
"anthropic.claude-v2": {
"input": 0.008,
"output": 0.024
},
"anthropic.claude-v2:1": {
"input": 0.008,
"output": 0.024
},
"mistral.mistral-7b-instruct-v0:2": {
"input": 0.00015,
"output": 0.0002
},
"mistral.mistral-large-2402-v1:0": {
"input": 0.008,
"output": 0.024
},
"mistral.mixtral-8x7b-instruct-v0:1": {
"input": 0.00045,
"output": 0.0007
}
}
Since we're building an LLM cascade for Q&A tasks, I'll be using a few samples from the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) to test the application
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# Load a small sample of the SQuAD dataset
# https://huggingface.co/datasets/rajpurkar/squad
# https://huggingface.co/docs/transformers/en/tasks/question_answering#load-squad-dataset
squad = load_dataset("squad", split="train[:10]")

# and split it up
squad = squad.train_test_split(test_size=0.2, seed=42)

def test_llm_cascade(llmc: Any, dataset: List[dict]):
"""
Invokes the LLM cascade against a collection of context/question pairs
and returns the final answer and a cost analysis.
"""

for sample in dataset:
response = llmc.invoke({'context': sample['context'], 'question': sample['question']})
print(json.dumps(response, indent=4))
cost, best_cost = compute_cost(response, models)
cost_delta = (cost - best_cost) * 100 / best_cost
print(f"Cost: ${cost} ({cost_delta:+.2f}%)")
Finally, let's initialize the LLM cascade and test it against our dataset
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# LLM cascade configuration
models = [
"mistral.mistral-7b-instruct-v0:2",
"mistral.mixtral-8x7b-instruct-v0:1",
"anthropic.claude-3-haiku-20240307-v1:0",
"anthropic.claude-3-sonnet-20240229-v1:0"
]
thresholds = [0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.0]

# Create LLM cascade
llmc_lc = llm_cascade(models, thresholds)

# and test it
test_llm_cascade(llmc_lc, squad['train'])
Threshold values are a good way to convey how much we trust a specific model and how effective the scoring function is in assessing that model's output. In the snippet above, the last threshold value (set to 0) is not actually used. Just think of it as a gentle reminder that we'll accept everything coming from the best (last) model if the LLM cascade execution ever gets there.
Looking at the output below, we see that most queries are reliably answered by weaker models (as we expected) leading to huge drops in cost (πŸ”»75-95%). The only exception is the query that reaches the end of the cascade (πŸ”Ί20%).
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{
"context": "Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend \"Venite Ad Me Omnes\". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.",
"question": "To whom did the Virgin Mary allegedly appear in 1858 in Lourdes France?",
"model": "mistral.mixtral-8x7b-instruct-v0:1",
"answer": " The Virgin Mary, according to the Catholic faith, allegedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858 in Lourdes, France. This is commemorated in the Grotto at the school you described, which is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes."
}
Cost: $0.0001677 (-88.50%)

{
"context": "As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.",
"question": "What is the daily student paper at Notre Dame called?",
"model": "mistral.mistral-7b-instruct-v0:2",
"answer": " The daily student paper at Notre Dame is called \"The Observer.\" It is an independent publication and does not have any editorial oversight from the University."
}
Cost: $6.259999999999999e-05 (-96.30%)

{
"context": "Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend \"Venite Ad Me Omnes\". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.",
"question": "What is the Grotto at Notre Dame?",
"model": "anthropic.claude-3-haiku-20240307-v1:0",
"answer": "Based on the description provided, the Grotto at Notre Dame is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary is said to have appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858.\n\nThe key details are:\n\n1. Immediately behind the Basilica of the Sacred Heart is the Grotto.\n2. The Grotto is described as \"a Marian place of prayer and reflection.\"\n3. It is specifically noted as \"a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858.\"\n\nSo the Grotto at Notre Dame is a recreated version of the famous Marian shrine at Lourdes, France, where the Virgin Mary is believed to have appeared to Saint Bernadette. It serves as a place of prayer and reflection for the Notre Dame community."
}
Cost: $0.0005632 (-83.42%)

{
"context": "Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend \"Venite Ad Me Omnes\". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.",
"question": "The Basilica of the Sacred heart at Notre Dame is beside to which structure?",
"model": "anthropic.claude-3-haiku-20240307-v1:0",
"answer": "According to the description, the Basilica of the Sacred Heart is located next to the Main Building at the University of Notre Dame.\n\nThe key details are:\n\n1. \"Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart.\"\n2. The description mentions the \"Main Building's gold dome\" and other features in front of the Main Building.\n\nSo the Basilica of the Sacred Heart is situated adjacent to the Main Building on the Notre Dame campus."
}
Cost: $0.00039755 (-82.02%)

{
"context": "Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend \"Venite Ad Me Omnes\". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.",
"question": "What sits on top of the Main Building at Notre Dame?",
"model": "anthropic.claude-3-haiku-20240307-v1:0",
"answer": "According to the description, atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary."
}
Cost: $0.00021185 (-77.29%)

{
"context": "As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.",
"question": "In what year did the student paper Common Sense begin publication at Notre Dame?",
"model": "mistral.mixtral-8x7b-instruct-v0:1",
"answer": " 1987\n\nIn 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published at Notre Dame."
}
Cost: $0.0002577 (-84.82%)

{
"context": "Architecturally, the school has a Catholic character. Atop the Main Building's gold dome is a golden statue of the Virgin Mary. Immediately in front of the Main Building and facing it, is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend \"Venite Ad Me Omnes\". Next to the Main Building is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Immediately behind the basilica is the Grotto, a Marian place of prayer and reflection. It is a replica of the grotto at Lourdes, France where the Virgin Mary reputedly appeared to Saint Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. At the end of the main drive (and in a direct line that connects through 3 statues and the Gold Dome), is a simple, modern stone statue of Mary.",
"question": "What is in front of the Notre Dame Main Building?",
"model": "anthropic.claude-3-sonnet-20240229-v1:0",
"answer": "According to the description, in front of the Notre Dame Main Building and facing it, there is a copper statue of Christ with arms upraised with the legend \"Venite Ad Me Omnes\"."
}
Cost: $0.0014707 (+20.75%)

{
"context": "As at most other universities, Notre Dame's students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876, the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news, and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. Likewise, in 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the conservative paper Irish Rover went into production. Neither paper is published as often as The Observer; however, all three are distributed to all students. Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.",
"question": "How many student news papers are found at Notre Dame?",
"model": "mistral.mistral-7b-instruct-v0:2",
"answer": " There are three student-run newspapers at Notre Dame: The Observer, Common Sense, and Irish Rover."
}
Cost: $5.9399999999999994e-05 (-95.91%)
Notice that we achieved these results by picking threshold values ad hoc and selecting the model sequence based on a simple heuristic rules involving model pricing and leaderboard positions. For any given task, simple techniques like grid search can be used to find the optimal model sequence and the best threshold values under budget constraints.
Let me add two final notes on visualization and monitoring before wrapping things up.
If you're using the LangGraph version, you can print the compiled graph in ASCII
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llmc_lg = llm_cascade_lg(models, thresholds)

# >>> ASCII
llmc_lg.get_graph().print_ascii()
or display it inside a Jupyter notebook using GraphViz
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from IPython.display import display, HTML
import base64

def display_image(image_bytes: bytes, width=300):
decoded_img_bytes = base64.b64encode(image_bytes).decode('utf-8')
html = f'<img src="data:image/png;base64,{decoded_img_bytes}" style="width: {width}px;" />'
display(HTML(html))

display_image(llmc_lg.get_graph().draw_png())
Finally, you can use LangSmith to monitor LLM cascade runs
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export LANGCHAIN_TRACING_V2=true
export LANGCHAIN_ENDPOINT=https://api.smith.langchain.com
export LANGCHAIN_API_KEY=your-api-key
export LANGCHAIN_PROJECT=frugal-bedrock
and track query penetration across the model sequence
You've reached the end of this post πŸŽ‰
As a token of my appreciation for reading this far, here's a bonus quote about Frugality:
"I think frugality drives innovation, just like other constraints do. One of the only ways to get out of a tight box is to invent your way out." ―Jeff Bezos
See you next time! πŸ‘‹

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Any opinions in this post are those of the individual author and may not reflect the opinions of AWS.

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